Steps in Troubleshooting Procedures of the PCB Assembly

An integrated circuit is constructed with the help of a printed circuit board (PCB). Using a PCB is advantageous because you will no longer attach wires to the board-mounted components individually. PCBs have consolidated pathways that can conduct electricity. These pathways are made of copper wires, which are situated at the base.circuit-board

They transmit current among the capacitors, transistors, resistors and diodes. Therefore, printed circuit boards are predominantly appropriate to be used in do-it-yourself circuit assemblies like remote control circuit boards.PCB assembly may be confusing for some people. They may experience problems in assembling the circuit board. Before finalizing the board, it is ideal to troubleshoot the process steps of the PCB assembly. In this way, you are sure that the device will function efficiently.

Materials to be used:
  • Phillips screwdriver
    • Magnifier
    • Multimeter
    • Soldering iron
    • A pair of tweezers


I. Test the circuit board components.
  1. Put the multimeter in resistance mode.
  2. Position the multimeter test lead in between of the first two constituents of the circuit board. Usually, the first two components are the ones nearest to the power supply cable, which is linked to the board.
  3. Take note of the meter reading. If the components are fixed, the meter reading should be around 5 percent closer to the specified value. The specified values of PCB assembly constituents are usually written on the side. For instance, a resistor’s value, which is in terms of ohms, is provided on the side of the component. If the meter reading is not within that range, detach the component and replace with another component of the same unit. If the meter reading is zero, then probably, the component is shorted out.
  4. Continue testing other constituents. Mostly, when the previous part is shorted out, the succeeding parts will give you a zero meter reading also.
II. Inspect the circuit board.
  1. Disengage the power supply from the circuit board. If it is powered by a battery, detach the battery and keep the snap wires compacted. If the board is corded, use a soldering iron to melt the circuit’s solder joint, which links the source of power to the circuit board.Circuit Boards
  2. Take off the screws from the circuit enclosure’s base. Screws are usually used in holding the circuit board in position. In this step, you will need the help of a Phillips screwdriver.
  3. Turn the board upside down. In this way, the conductive strip will be uncovered. PCBs must not be laid flat on the table. To avoid damaging PCBs, balance it by putting several books under its edges. This is to prevent the board-mounted parts from touching the desk.
  4. Examine the conductive circuits with the use of a magnifier. Check out if there are some cracks in it. Usually, conductor strips are sliced by a razor prior to PCB assembly. The purpose for doing this is to separate some parts of the board. In this case, if you unintentionally position a constituent in between of the two incisions in the strip, the circuit board will not function. If you find any crack along the conductive pathway, detach all constituents from the circuit board and utilize another board.
  5. Check if the connector leads and conductive cables are properly linked together by solder joints. If solder joints are not properly soldered, the circuit may possibly short out.
III. Eliminate non-functional components.
  1. Using a soldering iron, compress the solder joints and let it cool afterwards.
    2. Using a pair of tweezers, make the leads straight.
    3. Turn the board upside down and remove the components from the board turret. Replace it with a new model.

These are the simplest steps in troubleshooting the procedures of the PCB assembly.

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Popular Topics for Keynote Speakers: The Leadership Talk

Many companies and organizations employ the services of keynote speakers for special events, especially when the entire group is in a huge gathering such as a convention or conference.  Getting an excellent keynote speaker who will spur audience members into action is often a lofty undertaking.  It is a challenge for keynote speakers to address a group of people because of the diversity of the crowd, the different needs of people, and the intention of the client.  More than anything, the main message should contain the objectives of the company for said gathering.

One of the most popular topics of keynote speakers is Leadership:

Leadership is a topic that resonates well with people.  It is popular because it cuts across interests, abilities and even standing within the organization.  Everyone is a leader, whatever ranking or role you may have in the company.

Keynote Speaker

One good leadership topic that is often discussed by keynote speakers is how to be able to motivate talented people to perform well.  In essence, it answers the questions of how leaders will encourage individuals to do what they want them to do. Working with different personalities and even difficult people is often one of the challenges that leaders are faced with each day.  Good leadership speakers will help leaders how to develop buy-in and trust among their team mates, how to deal with resistance to change, how to get people with difficult personalities to trust you, and how to listen well to your team mates.

Another popular leadership topic is influence:

Influence often begins with a culture of accountability which has to be present on all the levels of the organization.  Influence is actually not driven by intelligence or personality – it is the understanding of how to make others feel valuable in the organization. When a keynote speaker talks about influence, it has to come from a viewpoint that leaders have to be effective, not just right.  Leaders need to be able to say that they are willing to listen to their people even if they disagree with them.

When talking about leadership, a good keynote speaker has to be straightforward and truthful.  Half-truths and sugarcoating will not work for leaders.  They also do not need a lot of padding and fluff.  Leaders always appreciate it if a fact is presented to them matter-of-factly.  It also does not hurt to inject a bit of humor into the speech.  Leaders appreciate a good laugh all the time.

Keynote Speakers

One of the most popular leadership topics is entitled The Real Truth about Success:

What the Top 10% Do Differently and why they won’t tell you.  This is based on the book of the same title written by Mr. Garrison Wynn.  The book is an Amazon bestseller, and has consistently top reviews, with Wynn being cited as someone who writes brutally honest truths about business, and with extremely quotable lines and practical ideas to boot.  Mr. Wynn gathered all the wonderful ideas from his bestselling book into a leadership-directed keynote address. In this keynote speech, the audience will learn what makes leaders of top-performing businesses succeed.

This book is a result not only of Mr. Wynn’s own experience, but also 20 years’ worth of interviews with captains of the industry.  The best thing about it is that it contains practical courses of action that the audience can do in order to reach success, which includes discovering or creating your own personal advantage and relentlessly putting your advantage to practical use, among others.  This realistic look into the world of success is infused with humor that Mr. Wynn is well-known for.

An excellent keynote speaker such as Garrison Wynn often talks about leadership, but he does not have a cookie cutter process for all companies.  What is good about him is that he sees to it that every keynote speech is customized and relevant to the company.  His long list of prestigious clients can attest to the fact that he seems to be addressing their specific needs every time he gives a keynote address. He has given keynote addresses to health care associations such as the 9-1-1 Emergency Networks, Texas Department of Health and Health Plus; government agencies such as the Port of Houston Authority and the Metro Transit Authority; various associations and big corporations such as Chevron, Prudential, Verizon, and the World Bank.

The secret behind Mr. Wynn’s success, particularly the demand for the topic of Leadership among many others in his arsenal is his commitment to the formula of humor, motivation, and customized content.  Before actually going out and doing a keynote address, he and his team conduct extensive research within the company and even within the industry. He also makes times for a conference call with the decision makers to discuss the keynote presentation.  This level of personalization is what makes him one of the most reliable and effective keynote speakers today.


To check out other topics aside from leadership, go to our website motivational-speaker-success.

Things to Consider when Buying Golf Drivers

Playing golf requires precision and strategy; hence, golfers will usually several options for golf equipment and accessories to help them improve their game. A golf driver is one of the golf clubs you will usually carry when playing the sport. It is designed to enable golfers to hit the ball as far as possible.

Golf drivers are typically the most expensive of all golf clubs. A lot of thought and planning should go into purchasing it to ensure that your investment will pay off in terms of accomplishing your performance goals. If you want value for your money, you can find great deals on a wide selection of high quality golf clubs and drivers at online stores like

When shopping for a golf driver, you will need to consider a few factors. These are the following:

Club Head

Golf drivers typically have the largest club head among golf clubs. The large metal head adds weight to long distance drives and will usually have a volume between 440cc to 460cc with the maximum set at 460cc. Drivers with 440cc club heads produce diverse launch conditions. Drivers with 460cc heads are generally more forgiving and may help you make more accurate shots on off-center strikes.

The shape of the club head will also vary and can influence both launch conditions and level of forgiveness.

Golf Drivers


Drivers are low-lofted and have angles that range from 7 to 12 degrees. Loft creates backs pins that enable the ball to rise higher into the air. If you are a golfer with slower swing speed, then you can optimize your launch conditions by using drivers or clubs with higher amount of lofts. Most golfers with swing speeds of 90mph or less will benefit from using a driver with a loft of at least 10 degrees.
Shaft Length

A driver is usually the longest-shafted club carried by golfers and are reserved for tee shots on par-4 and par-5 holes. Most drivers on the market will have shaft length of 43 to 46 inches with the maximum length set at 48 inches. Golfers will have to strike the balance between distance and control when selecting driver’s length. Longer drivers may mean more speed and distance, but will have less control and higher percentage of shot dispersion.

The long shaft and the low loft make a driver the most difficult club to use for many beginners and recreational golf players.

Shaft Flex

Shafts come in different levels of flexibility. You can maximize shot distance or accuracy by choosing the appropriate shaft flex. If you are a player with slower swing speed, you can maximize your distance by using a flexible shaft. On the other hand, if you are a player with higher swing speeds, drivers with more rigid shafts can help increase your accuracy.

Buying Golf Drivers


Golf drivers on the market today are either made of titanium or composite metal or a combination of both. These materials are so much lighter than steel and enables golf club manufacturers to come up with bigger club heads that can increase driving distance.

Manufacturers are continuously introducing innovations to golf drivers to ensure that you will achieve maximum control, distance and accuracy at whatever skill level. It is so much easier nowadays to find a golf driver, which can match your swing because of the variety of available options. When it comes to investing in important golf equipment such as golf drivers, you should look for reliable and trusted stores that sell authentic golf equipment and accessories. You can find the most powerful and innovative drivers from top brands in golf equipment at

Shop easy when you use the site to find the best golf driver for your needs. The wide array of choices will ensure that there is a perfect fit for your performance target. The user-friendly site will let you shop by brand, flex, loft, price, rating, or special features.

When you shop at, you can be sure that you are getting the best deals from the biggest names in golf equipment. Enjoy great value for your money and shop all you want while staying within your budget when you buy your golf driver from

Understand various types of automotive paints

Painting your car is fun and exciting, but choosing a type of paint is quite difficult. There are different types of finishes available in the market. Even if there are lots of options, we should still consider the paint’s cost. We must remember it is better to spend in a product without sacrificing the quality.

automotive paints

Taking a look at the automotive paints, they are typically made up of composite mixtures. Choosing the type of paint depending on its usage is essential. The following are the basic types of paint:

Acrylic lacquer

This type of paint has been used from the 1950’s to 1970’s, but this is still available today. This paint should be mixed with paint thinners, so it will dry fast. Most beginners also prefer this. Note, however, that it chips easily because it cannot withstand UV rays and other chemicals. This type of paint requires consistent maintenance. There is a need to buff and wax it regularly.

Acrylic Enamel

Urethane paintThis type of paint dries hard like shell and is tougher than lacquer paint when dried. Acrylic enamel requires more finishing work because this paint may make a dull result. For the car to have a nice finish, it is crucial to apply clear top coat into it. The only advantage we can get from this type of paint is that it is affordable.

Urethane paint

Urethane paint has the toughness of enamel. It is more expensive than enamels, yet it creates a plastic-like appearance. This car paint is long-lasting as it doesn’t fade or crack easily. This is more modern than enamel, but unlike enamel, urethane paint dries more quickly. We should use it with precautionary measures as this paint is toxic.

Two Pack Acrylic Enamel or 2 Pack

This paint is a mixture of 2 resins namely acrylic and melamine. The two resins should be added with a hardener, called the isocyanates. When these resins are mixed altogether, a chemical reaction can dry them up. This kind of finish is also long-lasing and damage-resistant. Using 2 packs is risky because of the isocyanates. The mentioned chemical is terribly toxic that it can potentially harm our respiratory and immune system.

Nitrocellulose lacquer

This oldest type of paint is compatible only to certain finishes. If nitrocellulose lacquer is applied to other finishes incompatible to it, the result is blistering and melting of the paint on the car because of a non-cellulose reaction. It is advisable to spray nitrocellulose lightly for its first coat. This can limit the chances of unwanted chemical reaction because the solvent evaporates first before reaching the surface.

Water-based paint

This auto paint is created through modern technology and is paint for automobilenon-toxic. Water-based paint is also a popular choice by those who want to paint their car in their home garage. Even if it’s non-toxic, it still requires clear topcoat urethane for protection. It is advisable to wear proper gears when applying it.

You can apply this over metals, on primer, as well as on existing paint work. Since water-based paint is versatile, it is the perfect option in changing the vehicle’s color or even adding graphics. It also has minimal effects on your health.

Metallic Paint and Pearlescent Paint

Metallic paint can be made by mixing powdered metal with other paints. The powdered metal can be purchased separately. The sheer of metallic paint will depend on the amount the metallic powder that is being mixed. Metallic paint adds an appeal of luster to the auto rather than just ordinary color paint. Pearlescent paint, on the other hand, uses ceramic crystals or “mica”, which creates a dark color effect to the auto (when the car is hit by the sunlight).

In choosing our ideal car paint, we should consider what is convenient and what really suits our taste. You can also create your own website to help those people who are in need of information regarding this topic.

Car Tune-up Tips

In this modern world we live in, cars are no longer a luxury, they are now a necessity. The automotive industry, which is mainly concerned with the design, development, manufacturing, marketing and maintenance of cars, has seen a steady rise in car sales in the past decade.

As aforementioned, the automotive industry does not only focus on the design and marketing of automobiles, it is also concerned about its maintenance. However, we do not need to need be an automobile mechanic or expert in order to do basic maintenance on your car. The following are some basic car tune-up steps we can do to extend the life of our automobile and prevent unnecessary car breakdowns.

Car tune-up steps
1.    Check the oil

Check the oilChecking the oil and making sure its level is enough is the simplest way to keep our car in tip top shape. Uncap the oil chamber of the car and find the dipstick near the engine block. Make sure to do this after the car has had sufficient time to cool down. You can also do this early in the morning to get the most accurate reading of the oil level. After removing the dipstick, wipe the oil off using a rag or towel. Examine the oil on the rag or towel. How does it look like? What is its color? What is the texture of the oil? Is it chunky or are there sediments?

Aside from the quality of the oil, we also need to check the oil level. If the oil level is low, refill it using a funnel to avoid spillage. Make sure to refill it with the correct kind of oil. Experts recommend that we change the oil every 3,000 miles to keep the car in tip top shape.

2.    Check the tires

tiresAnother car tune-up step we can do is to check the tires of the car. A busted tire is one of the greatest fears of a motorist. A busted tire can even be cause of untoward accidents and deaths.

There are two things to check in tires – the treads and air pressure. Check the treads of the car for wear and tear. Use a pressure gauge available at gas stations to adjust the air pressure of your tires. Make sure to inflate the car with the correct PSI.

3.    Check the other fluids

power steering fluidAside from the oil, we also have to check the other fluids of the car. There are at least five other fluids we need to monitor regularly. Some of them are the brake fluid, transmission fluid, power steering fluid, radiator fluid and windshield washer fluid. Regularly check the quality and level of these fluids. Also, change them every so often.

4.    Check the brakes

brakesAnother car tune-up step you can do is to check the brakes of the car. Its brakes is one of the most integral yet neglected part of the vehicle. Check if the brakes of engage as soon as you step on it. Also, check for squeaks, grinds and unevenness in the brake pedals.

5.    Check the battery

batteryThe batteries power up your car. No batteries, no movement from the car. Check for signs of corrosion in the battery. Clean the contact points of the battery using baking soda. Put baking soda mixed with water on an old tooth brush and carefully scrub the surface. Remove or loosen the bots of the contact points to remove the corrosion and dirt built-up around this area.

6.    Check the lights

lightsThe lights are as important as the brakes and tires of your automobile, especially during the night or on a foggy day.

If you have no one to check your car lights with you, park in front of a wall and check for the reflection of the light bounced of the wall. Check for possible burnt-out lights.

7.    Check the filters

filtersThere are at least four filters in a car we have to keep in mind when doing car maintenance. These are the air, oil, fuel and cabin air filter. The air filter filters thousands of gallons of air for a certain gallon of fuel. Clogged air, oil, fuel and cabin air filters can reduce the performance of the car.

Aside from the aforementioned steps, there are also certain parts that we need to repair as part of the car tune-up measure. These include the distributor cap, spark plugs, windshields, PCV valve, idle speed, idle mixture and ignition timing.

The aforementioned are just some of the preventive measures we can take to avoid greater untoward incidents. They may seem like added work or a nuisance. However, these little added things will pay in the long run. Our site links to more pages and sites that will provide more information about car tune-up steps and tips.